The tension device is one of the main components of the belt conveyor. It mainly provides a certain tension force for the normal operation of the belt conveyor belt, ensures the tension at the minimum tension point of the conveyor belt, and compensates for the permanent elongation of the conveyor belt. Therefore, choosing a suitable tensioning device is the key to designing a belt conveyor. There are three types of tensioning devices: spiral, cart and vertical. The advantages and disadvantages of these three tensioning devices and their scope of application are introduced below.
(1) Spiral tension device
The spiral tensioning device is installed at the tail wheel of the belt conveyor, and the tail wheel is displaced by adjusting the screw to tension the conveyor belt. Generally used on belt conveyors with a length less than 60 meters and less power. The tightening stroke is divided into 500 and 800 mm in the series of products. The stroke can be selected according to 1% of the length of the belt conveyor. The sum of the two tensions of the conveyor belt approaching point and running-away point acting on the tail wheel is the tension of the tensioning device.
The advantages of the spiral tensioning device are simple and compact structure and small space occupation. The disadvantage is that the tension of the conveyor belt cannot be automatically adjusted, the tension is not easy to control, and it is not suitable to set up an automatic scale on the conveyor belt. On important belt conveyors, screw tensioning devices should not be used as much as possible.
(2) Car-type tensioning device
The car-type tensioning device is to install the tail wheel of the belt conveyor on a moving car, and connect the mobile car and the heavy hammer with a steel rope through the reversing pulley, and the conveyor belt is automatically tightened by the gravity of the heavy hammer. The effective stroke of tightening is:
S=(0.01~0.017)L, where S is the effective stroke of the tensioning device (m); L is the actual length of the conveyor (m).
Practice has proved that the effective stroke of the tension should be larger. The car-type tensioning device has a wide range of applications, and is not limited by the length of the belt conveyor. The tension of the conveyor belt can be automatically adjusted. The structure is simple and reliable. Therefore, it should be used in design.
(3) Vertical tension device
The vertical tensioning device is installed between the drive roller and the tail wheel, and should be as close as possible to the place where the conveyor belt has the least tension (drive roller). When the belt conveyor starts, the tightening action of the heavy hammer is sensitive and the effect is good. The structure is that after the bottom side conveyor belt passes through a 90° reversing roller, the 180° reversing roller is installed on the frame, and the conveyor belt is tightened by a heavy hammer hung on the frame. The selection of the effective stroke is the same as the car-type tensioning device.
The vertical tensioning device is suitable for occasions where the car-type tensioning device is difficult. Its advantage is that the space position of the length of the belt conveyor is utilized, and the equipment is easy to arrange. The disadvantage is that the number of reversing rollers used is large, and the material is easy to fall between the conveyor belt and the roller, which accelerates the wear of the conveyor belt and the roller surface. Especially when transporting damp or viscous materials, the abrasion is more serious due to poor cleaning.
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